Etymology, what Europe means, Phoenician Deception-barbaric twist of History, Alpha – Omega: Aner-Andros(Gram:Genetivous=man`s) Ago(=to leed)-Aristo (=Noblest) etc., -The INDEX as Orientation of the genuine Hellenic Alphabeth.What Alpha means Mathematicaly …
Etymology, what Europe means, Phoenician Deception-barbaric twist of History, Alpha – Omega: Aner-Andros(Gram:Genetivous=man`s) Ago(=to leed)-Aristo (=Noblest) etc., -The INDEX as Orientation of the genuine Hellenic Alphabeth.What Alpha means Mathematicaly …
This is the meaning of the ancient Hellenic(Greek) word “ετυμος+λογος “etymos+logos” (from which the conditions produced “ετυμολογία” – “etymology” – “ετυμολογικό=etymological”), which means: True, real.Thus is meaning “literal meaning of a word according to its origin.” Be careful NOT to confuseEtymology with the similar sounding entomology.Entomon means “insect” in Greek, and Entomology is the study of bugs.
ALL Ancient Greek words, which are ending in ANDROS
...turns into –ANDRO (Andromache – one of Priamos Daughters in ancient Ilion or Troja) – Periandros; the ruler of ancient Corinth at 500 B.C…so..ANDRO in latin AFTER the 3th century B.C…and “ANDER” in English ..much later & “Aleksander” in slavic 600 years A.C: Like: Alexandros,(the REAL Macedonian name – NOT the..Wardasko-bulgarianFAKE one “Aleksander”,..as the WELL Known scambug …Mr. …Soros made it up! Meandros..into Meander(àfter the meaning of=Midwife of man), Leandros into Leander(=Lion to man), Anaximandros-“Anaximander”(born in 610 BC in Miletus, died 546 BC in Miletus, was a greek Astronomer and philsopher , at Ionian – Junan in Turkish, Arabic & Persian – (at west coast of now days Turkey) School. He is best known as the first to assert that the earth is not held up by anything at all, but it’s a cylinder floating in the void. .(..PLUS at least one hundred names turned into-“ander” from -andros etc. (Ἀναξίμανδρος ….and names in -OS ; Latinized ending in: US..Ex: Oedipus-Οιδίπους=edema+foot(οιδημα+πους, – Gen: ποδος), Aristarchos-us, Archelaos..into Archelaus etc.
The small alphabetical letters(Poinsettia scripture) came very late, in Alexandria så called Alexandrian scripture(Aλεξανδρινη γραφη-Alexandrini graphi Ex: (From Alexanders the Great speech to Persians). “Ευγνωμονώ τοις θεοίς ότι εγεννήθην Έλλην” in ancient Greek means:”Bless the Gods that I was born Hellen(=Greek).
Before the Alexandrian Scripture, it was ONLY Capital Letters with NO space in between the phrases.
The ONLY KEY of Learning & understanding deeply the Hybride Languages, as the English, “New Greek”, Hebrew, Latin etc.
IS The PREPOSITIONS:..,(and ofcourse) the:Prefix, suffix, adverbs, pronouns etc.): A – a privative(=un in Latin=not, without) (where N is allways added between two vocals) Ex:
A(+n)arhy(=without authority from: αναρχια, thus:α(+ν)+αρχη = authority, start), abyss(= Bottomless); from: Aβυσσος – Abyssos, Anandros(=Cowardice), Α(+ν)+ανδρος,Genetivus of Ανηρ). Atopos(= atopy),etc.. ANA(=Upwards): ex: anodos from: ano+odos=way – ana tom, analysis*****,Anabole(from: Volo=to throw) – Anastasis –Αναστασις = resurrection – name: Anastasia).etc. EXO=(outside) Ex:exodus(exo+odos – – εξω+οδος)., Exotic etc.EU(Prefix=Well) Ex:Evagelium(=the good message- Aggelo= to message)),Euphoria,eumorphos(ευμορφος) = Wellshaped,Eugenios, -a(=Names meaning Noble gens heritage; from:ευγενης-eugenis=from noble, polite, aristocratic heritage), euhelius-from: ευ+ηλιος=Sunny, etc. DYS(Prefix=adversely Badly); Ex: Dysphoria-δυσφορια(=DISCOMFORT), Dyslexia-ΔΥΣΛΕΞΙΑ(ΛΕΞΙΣ=word),Dyspnia(=breathlessness)from: δυσ+πνοη=adve(Lexisrsely breath; etc. (Quantity= double)Ex: diphthong(δίφθογγος)=Double vocal. pronouncen, as one, (like: eu, au, ei, oi, ai., Di–opt-ra(Διοπτρα, ος, η; from: δια+οπωπα-ορDISαω-ω)= instrument with which you look away the well / measuring instrument for determining the level / plate of transparent slate, which entered instead of glass windows., instrument with which you look away the well / measuring instrument for determining the level / plate of transparent slate, which entered the anti glass windows.Dipus(δι+πους)=the one, who has tow feet.Dillema,subs.(=sort of reasoning that two contradictory proposals / ambiguous proposal, from: διλλημα .(δis+λαμβανω=to receive)etc. KATA(=Dowonwards): ex: catastrophe(=to turn down, =disester from: kata+strofi,os turn, cathodos=down way), Katabole(= to throw downwards; from: βολω –bolo=to throw – (kata+bolo) etc. DIA(=Through): ex:Diametre(Dia+metro=meter,Dialysis, Diasporaetc),Dianoia=intellect-διανοια(Δια+νους) Diabolos(= Devil),.,Dialysis*****etc.;. PERI(=Round). ex: Peripheric(peri+pheria=area),Periscope-περισκοπιον etc. META(= after): metabolisme,Met(h)ode, from meta+odos=after+way, Methodius, (like anode, kathode etc), – there , (when next word starts with vocal -T- turns into Th, like katharsis(=purification) from:κατα+αρσις=lifting. and(H is anded before the word (Latinized, as ie: Helios, hepatite, Hypnos,Harmony,Hypophysis etc, depending of the apostrophe.)– etc,.AMPHI(=Round.) ex: Amphitheatre(AMPHI= round+theatron, αμφι+βιος-(Amphi+Bios)=amphibian= the one who can live both in the water & land, like frogs) etc.,APO(=From). ex:apocalypse – apo+kalypsisis– from calypto=cover,apostrophe, ), etc. ANTI(Against, opposite). Ex:antidote(αντι+δοτος=given), antidemocratic,antipolemic(=agaist war),antarktis(anti+arktos=bear) etc., (HYPER(=Super): ex:Hyperthermia(Thermos,i=warm),Hyperanthropos= Superman), PRO(=Before, opposite, ago; ex: Prophete – Προφητης(προ=φημι) = the one , who guess the future,Probiotic (pro+bios), Prologue -προ+λογος,where logos means=word,speech,reason.;etc. PROS(=direction) (H)YPO(=Under. ex: Hypothyroid(Hypo+thyroid=door-kind, hypophysis), Hypocricy etc.), EPI(=On) ex:Epidemia, epidemic(Epi=on+dimos=people),epi+dermis – (derma=skin) etc. PARA(=Beside) Ex: Paralysis*****, Parabole, Parallel = beside each other; (Para+allilos-αλληλos=mutual),Paradox (παραδοξος -from: para+doxo=doctrine,Dogma etc, Ex: paranous- para+nous=Mind , parabolic, paranoid, παρά+δειγμα=paradigm, Paragraphe(παρα+γραφος),Parenthesis(Para+en+thesis=Position),paranomos(=illegal) etc.. EN(=in,at) ex: ενεργεια=energy – (Eν+εργο)-En+ergia = in action., embryon(εν+βρυω), (vryo=to grow inside an other bodys waters); etc
SYN(P)(=Plus, CON in Latin) Ex: Sympathetic, Symposion (-um in Latin) from Syn+ posion= to drink together – socialy having philosophical, Social, Strategic, and other discusions; – (N before consonant turns into M, the same haL before L BEFORE consonant; like: syllable), Synagoga(Syn+agogi,from ago=to lead, like pedago= to lead the child
PAN*(=“whole”,each) πᾶν (pân, “whole”Ex:Pan+orama(παν+οραμα=vision), Pangreas,PANTHEON(=All+Gods), Pangration from: -(κρατω) –krato = to hold, to keep etc.) – neuter, nominative singular of πᾶς (pâs, “whole”,each). PAN*** (To be continued further down)
(plural : πάντα) Ex: “Ta panta rei” (Heracleitus from Ephesos – 500B.C.)
(pánta) = everything
Nominative, accusative and vocative plural form of παν (pan) –neuter nominative singular of πᾶς (pâs)neuter accusative singular of πᾶς (pâs).neuter vocative singular of πᾶς (pâs)
“Pan Metron Ariston” – Παν μετρον αριστον= Everything (with) measure (is) Noblest
Noun: πάντα • (pánta) n (invariable) Noun[
πάντα • (pánta) =Everything
All Fine Arts(:Sculpture, Architecture, Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics, Language-etymology, , (as a clue to analyze words & improve real historical facts),Literature(=λογοτεχνία) and finally MYTHOLOGY, wich is COSMOLOGY, as well, contaning ALL the above…THAT`s HOW the HELLENIQUE(Greek)Language CREATED:INTERRELATED with,(as said above): All Fine Arts(:Sculpture, Architecture, Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics, Language-etymology, as: HOLISTICand COMPLETE ONE!
So when parts of History, Mythology, Language etc, are stolen, copied, or twisted …..THEN ..Anyone with the basic intelligence and with selfrespect, canobviously see that in faked stolen Historical facts, there`s NOT anyINTERRELATION, RELATIONSHIP or CONTINUITY Between the above!(Sculpture, Architecture, Poetry, Theater), Geometry, Philosophy, Mythology, Astronomy, Mathematics, Music, Rythmic, Retoric, Pharmacology(=Medicine), Physics, Language-etymology.. That`s the CLUE to analyze and UNDERSTAND the words & improve real historical facts!!
(What EVER are arguing by twisting the HISTORY by ALL means icluded media, all these low level of course pseudo”historians”, “scholars” etc, due to various reasons: Political, Strategical, Economical, ETHNICAL inferiority complex etc, facts ARE facts!) – (UNFORTUNATELY, these DARK Powers leeds the Media globally due to the Greed….
The J.P.Garnier Malet says: “The letters of the Greek alphabet is a passage of time that delete atoms, stars and galaxies.
On the farthest times people communicated through thought, and when at some point had to hide the truth were applying the writing. “
The main view of the lecture was to photograph Mexican old inscription 22,500 years on a stone found in lava layer at a depth of 19 meters, on which appear uppercase and lowercase Greek letters and numbers dispelling the redicoulus theory, that the Greek (Hellenic) language is…”Indoeuropean” or… Phoenician(!!!) or ..Hebrew(!) origin letters, and numbers of …Arab origin!
The Oracle of Delphi in Greece
Delphi in Greece and its oracle was one of the most sacred places in the ancient world. Situated in the breathtaking surroundings by the mythical Mt. Parnassus, where Pan and the nymphs lived, it is still an enchanting site. The ancient Greeks believed that Delphi was the centre of the world and in the oracle was foretold the future of kings and common men.
Hellenique Mythology IS Cosmology: Although Delphi had been dedicated to many deities before him, Gaea, Themis and Phoebe, Apollo is the god most connected to the place. Delphi, were in ancient times an important political, cultural and religious center, a symbol of unity for the Hellenic world for many centuries, and were the headquarters of the famous oracle of Apollo.
The place originally called Delphi – the ancient Greek word meaning “womb belly” – because of its shape or because there worshiped during the Mycenaean era mother – goddess Earth. Also, the name “Delphi” refers us to Delphi, who was the son or Poseidon or Apollo, and brother of Parnassus. The former Delfos had invented the divination by examining the viscera of sacrificial animals, and the Parnassus guessing by the way flying birds.
In Delphi, when mythology met two eagles sent from the ends of the universe, Zeus, one from the East and the other from the West, to find the center of the world. The history of Delphi lost in the mists of prehistory and in the myths of the ancient Greeks.
According to tradition, here was originally Sanctuary dedicated to Mother Earth, the keeper of which was the monstrous serpent Python, son and protector of the Earth goddess. Apollo, son of Zeus, he left Mount Olympus in order to kill the Python and conquer this beautiful and holy place. This god of light, grace, music and artistry, slaying Python, offered the Greeks the triumph of the rout of primitive instinct, pushing them simultaneously to create artworks in all areas of music, sculpture and writing. After the slaughter of Python, Apollo exile, to take the appropriate penalty and to atone. Then he returned, transformed into a dolphin and riding a boat Cretan sailors, who arrived in Kirra, port of Delphi. The sailors left and those at Delphi, built the Temple of Apollo and became priests. Apollo crowned officially lord and protector of Delphi, the point is not that in which slaughter took place the pythons, the highest of the gods Zeus threw the sacred rock, a huge white stone egg-shaped, so Delphi became known to the ends of the then world as the Earth’s “navel”.
The oldest finds in Delphi dating to the Neolithic period (4000 BC) and from the Korikio Cave, a cave on Mount Parnassus, where the first rituals were held. Within the Sanctuary Mycenaean settlement and cemetery. The traces are minimal until the 8th century. BC, a period during which the cult of Apollo and began the development of the Sanctuary and Oracle.
Towards the end of the 7th century. BC, built the first stone temples of Apollo and the other in Athens, also officially worshiped had its own mosque. According to literary and archaeological evidence other gods Delphi even, sister of Apollo, Artemis(or Diana much later in Latin), Poseidon, Dionysus, Hermes, Zeus Poliefs, Health, Eileithyia (goddess of childbirth), the Graces and the Muses, goddesses of poetry and music. Father of the Muses was Apollo. Thus, the cult gained great prestige in Delphi, which was the most important center of Apollonian religion.
With Sanctuary linked the institution of Amphictyony, ie the federation of twelve tribes of Thessaly and Central Greece, originally with religious and later political importance. The Delphic amphictyony had control of the assets and operations of the sanctuary. Under the protection and management of the 6th century. BC, the sanctuary was made autonomous against its claimants (A Holy War), and increased its religious and political influence.
The prestige and power of Delphi caused three Sacred Wars in the mid-5th and mid-4th century. BC .. A fourth Holy War broke out in 339 BC, in which the Locrians of Amfissa mixed, and which ultimately led to Philip’s intervention in southern Greece.
During the 3rd century. BC, a new political and military power is emerging, the Aetolians, who express their strong presence in the Sanctuary with various offerings (= tributes [from the ancient Greek verb “anatithimi” = I dedicate]). A few years later, the city of Delphi suffered major damage from the invasion of the Gauls in Greece.
During the Roman domination period (after 168 BC), Delphi was favored and plundered by the Roman emperors, such as Sulla in 86 BC ..
With the advent of Christianity, Delphi became an episcopal see, but was abandoned in the early 7th century. AD era invasion of the Slavs. Gradually the ancient sanctuary was banked, and much later on in the buried ruins of a new village, Kastri.
(Explaining, as above the Arithmollogical, Mathematical, Architecnical, Astronomical, Poetical, Philosophical, Mythological and Rythmical -MusicalINTERCONNECTION &CONTINUITY, of the ANCIENT HELLENIQUE Language, as ONE HOLISTIC COMPLETE..thus The MYTHE that certain words are …Semitic or …. Phoenician(!!!) is NOT valid because there`s not – what so ever – any conection or ANY CONTINUITY at all…
The WORD..PAN.***(.. continued!!*)
Pan, the protector of Greek warriors, the most wronged god of the Greeks, is he from whom comes the word PANIC because it felt those who put them in Greece and by extension with him, Pan is the “victim”.
The name is derived from Ancient Greek pan (πᾶν, “all, entire, whole”) and Gaia (Γαῖα, “Mother Earth, land”). Pangaea or Pangea the Latinized form “Pangaea” (of the Greek “Pangaia”).(pronunciation: /pænˈdʒiː/) was asupercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoicand early Mesozoic eras.It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 300 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea was in the southern hemisphere and surrounded by a super ocean, Panthalassa(Pan+thalassa= sea – Θαλασσα or θαλαττα in Dorian Dialect). Pangaea was the last supercontinent to have existed and the first to be reconstructed by geologists.
Map of Pangaea with modern continental outlines.
The distribution of fossils across the continents is one line of evidence pointing to the existence of Pangaea.
The earliest numerical notation used by the Greeks was the Attic system. It employed the vertical stroke for a one, and symbols for“5”, “10”, “100”, “1000”, and “10,000”. Though there was some steamlining of its use, these symbols were used in a similar way to the Egyptian system, being that symbols were used repeatedly as needed and the system was non positional. By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. This is the system we discuss. The (Ionian) Greek system of enumeration was a little more sophisticated than the Egyptian though it was non-positional. Like the Attic and Egyptian systems it was also decimal. Its distinguishing feature is that it was alphabetical and required the use of more than 27 different symbols for numbers plus a couple of other symbols for meaning. This made the system somewhat cumbersome to use. However, calculation lends itself to a great deal of skill within almost any system, the Greek system being no exception. ” Greek Enumeration and Basic Number Formation First, we note that the number symbols were the same as the letters of the Greek alphabet. symbol value symbol value symbol value ! 1 ” 10 # 100 $ 2 % 20 & 200 ‘ 3 ( 30 ) 300 * 4 + 40 , 400 – 5 . 50 / 500 6 0 60 1 600 2 7 3 70 4 700 5 8 6 80 7 800 8 9 90 900 where three additional characters, the (digamma), the (koppa), 1°c 2000, G. Donald Allen Greek Numbers and Arithmetic 2 and the (sampi) are used. Hence, &62 = 287 Larger Numbers Larger numbers were also available. The thousands, 1000 to 9000, were represented by placing adiacritical mark ! before a unit. Thus ! ‘&62 = 3287 In other sources we see the diacritical mark placed as a subscript before the unit. Thus ! ‘&62 = 3287 The uses of a M was used to represent numbers from 10,000 on up. Thus 9! = 50: 000 9″#&62 = 120: 287 Alternatively, depending on the history one reads 9 – = 50: 000 9!% ¢ &62 = 120: 287 Archimedes, in his book The Sand Reckoner, calculated the number of grains of sand to fill the universe”. This required him to develop an extention the power of Greek enumeration to include very large numbers. Fractions In the area of fractions, context was crucial for correctly reading a fraction. A diacritical mark was placed after the denominator of the (unit) fraction. So, $ ! = 1 2 ;<= +$ ! = 1 42 but this latter example could also mean 40 ! ” . More complex fractions could be written as well, with context again being important. The numerator was written with an overbar. Thus, .! 6* = 51 84 Numerous, similar, representations also have been used, with increasing sophistication over time. Indeed, Diophantus uses a fractional form identical to ours but with the numerator and denominator in reversed positions. 2The reader may ask, ”What universe?” It was the universe of Aristarchos the so called ‘ancient Copernicus’ because he proposed a sun centered universe with the earth and other planet orbiting it. More on this later. Greek Numbers and Arithmetic 3 # Calculation The arithmetic operations are complex in that so many symbols are used. However, as you can imagine, addition amounts to grouping and then carrying. For example 5+7= – + 2 = %$ = 12, not terribly unlike what we do. Multiplication was carried out using the distributive law. For example: &62 ¢ $ = (& + 6 + 2) £ $ = (200 + 80 + 7) £ 2 = 400 + 160 + 14 = 574 = /3*
(ALPHA – ΑΛΦΑ = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON – ΟΜΙΚΡΟΝ = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle
A vast knowledge locked-coded into words because of mathematical values they have. One of the pioneers on the matter was maximum Pythagoras.
The numbers, shapes, harmony and the stars have something in common, so respectively mathematics (numbers) geometry (shape), harmony (music) and astro-nomy (one star = a-choris- bracket + natural nomoipou govern ) were sisters sciences by Pythagoras, which in this series we discussed was the ladder to development (= ex -tou- helix, DNA) of mind-soul to the Creator.
A Creator who created based on these four disciplines. 27 symbols-figures in numerical value make up the Greek Alphabet, 3 groups of 9 numbers-symbols each group, totaling each group 45, 450, 4,500.
ALPHA = 1 + 30 + 500 + 1 = 532 => 5 + 3 + 2 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
EN = 5 + 50 = 55 => 5 + 5 = 10 => 1 + 0 = 1
OMIKRON = 70 + 40 + 10 + 20 + 100 + 70 + 50 = 360, as there are degrees of the circle
To be able to understand the meanings of the concepts of words of ancient Greek tongue should first know a little about the actual Greek language.
The ancient Greek language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The ancient Greek language is aMATHEMATICAL MASTERPIECE that wè`ll try to approach.
The beginning of everything is the same as the Ancient Greek alphabet (which of course we did not get it from someone else as we shall see, because factually not possible). The letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole was 33 and as many vertebrae,the last five vertebrae (playing the role of the antenna) directly related to the brain and corresponding to the last 5 ineffable letters which only the priests knew * one of them It was the right (or Gammadion) which in Latin became swstika and the Nazis stole and name Swastika. This symbol is the life-giving Sun (Apollo), the Nazis reversed it to symbolize the opposite of life-giving Sun, ie dark death.
There were also some letters which over time abolished as Digamma (F, Qoppa (Q), stigma (S ‘), Saba (ϡ)
Pythagoras inform us about the 3 levels of Greek language which are:
2. Signifier (a. Signal b. Signified)
3. caches (a. Time b. Vibration c. Lexarithmos d. Tonarithmos)
-The First is the speech
-The Second is the relationship between the mark and the signified that we will analyze below.
-The Third is the interval (distance & time), vibration (which awakens the brain through resonance frequencies of the created pulses – Pallas Athena) the lexarithmos (relation of letters and words with numbers) and tonarithmos (relation of letters and words of tunes )
Each letter corresponding to a number, and a musical tone so letter = number = tone (musician), which shows that in our language behind letters-words are numbers(lexarithmoi) and musical sounds (tonarithmoi).
The four sisters sciences by Pythagoras were:
1. Numbers (mathematics)
2. Shapes (Geometry – γεωμετρια); from: geo+metria=earth measure, meter.
3. Music (Harmony)(nine muses..)
4. Astronomy (Astro+nomia fromnomos=law)
The above sciences are interrelatedwith the Ancient Hellenic Language and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.
1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony),shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
2. Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.
PHOENICIAN “ALPHABET”: AN HISTORICAL DECEPTION
1. Completely rejects the theorem that the Greek language came from another language (the so-called “Indo-European”!!!), since it is PROVEN to be the only NON-conventional language of the world. In other words, the only language where a relationship betweenthe “word” (as a form) and the “meaning of the word” is established.
2. Consequently, it is proven that Greek is the first and only created language of the human species which provided the basis for all “conventional” languages, as are all the other languages of the world (where there is no causative relationship between the form and the meaning). These other languages are a corrupt form of Greek.
3. This theory proves, without a doubt, that the alphabet was created by the Greeks so that the 24 or 27 code letters would aid in attributing the meanings of the Greek words (and only of these).
4. Comparatively, this theory shows that the symbols of the Phoenician writings and their nouns, e.g., “alef” = ox, “beth” = hut, “gimel = camel, etc., not onlydo not contain coded meaning, but are also associated or refer to [the]primitive animal conditions – [one would expect in a culturally backward society].
Overwhelming evidence that one of the most important discoveries in the history of civilization is Greek ,a deception that usurps and distorts Greek History and Civilization. It is of utmost importance that the truth be restored not only for modern Greece, but also for thewhole of humanity.The deception that alphabetical script was discovered by the Phoenicians is a long-lived one.For the past 14 years [the Greek scholarly magazine] Davlos has published numerous articleson this problem. This prompted K. Katis to ask that we submit a relevant article for hismainstream daily so that this important issue would become known to a wider audience.
This article summarizes the strong evidence against the “Phoenician Deception,” and proves that the greatest discovery in the history of civilization is Greek. We believe it necessary to republish this article in [this issue of] Davlos exactly as it appeared in the daily.
A SCIENTIFIC MONSTROSITY.
According to linguistic theory, an “alphabet” is defined as “the sum of symbols following a specific sequence and order used to ascribe the essential utterances of a language, under thecondition that each utterance represents only one symbol and vice-versa”. Consequently, in alphabetical script (as an example, in the writings of the people of Europe, America,Australian, as well as the other parts of the world) each letter represents one essential sound.This is not true for the imperfect alphabets expressed through syllables where each symbolrepresents a syllable (with two or more voiced sounds). For example, in Greek Linear A and B, there is a symbol that represents the syllable ko (k + o), a symbol that represents the syllable po (p + o), etc. In Phoenician writing (which has only consonants and no vowels), this situation is even worse, as far as we can tell from the small amount of existing samples.
In Phoenician, each symbol is not equivalent to one specific syllable, but to a variety of syllables, and thus the reader can use his imagination when attempting to decipher the sounds. For example, there are consonants which can be read as either ba, bou, be, bi, bo, etc. Others is not an alphabet, it is a less advanced form of writing that can be read as gou, ga, ge, go, and so on. Consequently, Phoenician script does not constitute an alphabet, and is not even an advanced form of syllabic script nearing the perfection of the equivalent Greek syllabic writings. It is truly amazing to think that, in the academic world of the past 150 years, the almost contradictory term of “Phoenician alphabet” has been established, which, in reality refers to a type of writing that has nothing to do with an alphabet. It is even more unbelievable to think that the scientific dogma that Greek came from Phoenician has been enforced. Not only the Phoenician is not an alphabet, it is a less advanced form of writing than Greek Linear A and B.
GREEKNESS OF THE ALPHABET
a) Archaeological Evidence The theory that the alphabet is a Phoenician discovery has been maintained through the argument, among other things, that certain symbols of Phoenician writing are similar to the letters of the alphabet. For example, the Phoenician alef is the reverse or sideways Greek “A.” This argument was a strong one until about 100 years ago, when linguists and historians still maintained that the Greeks did not know how to write before 800 B. C.! Around 1900 A.D., however, Arthur Evans excavated the Greek Minoan Crete and discovered the Greek Linear writings, whose symbols corresponded to 17 of the 24 letters of the Greek Alphabet. Given that (A), the most ancient evidence of the Greek scripts (Linear A and Linear B) that were later discovered in Pylos, Mycenae, Menidi and Thebes — but also in more northern areas up to the Danube river as well — were dated to before 1500 B.C. And (B), that the Phoenicians and their writings appear in history no earlier than 1300 BC, Evans was the first person to express doubts about the theory that the Greeks received their script from the Phoenicians. He put forward the scientific suspicion that it was probably the other way round. The doubts pertaining as to who was first — the Phoenicians or the Greeks — in discovering writing, became a certainty when French professor, Paul Fore, an internationally acclaimed specialist on Prehistoric Archaeology, published a report in Nestor (an American Archaeological Journal of the University of Indiana — 16th year, 1989, page 2288). In this report, he submits and deciphers plates with Greek Linear writing found at the cyclopean wall of Pilikates, in Ithaca, dated, through the use of modern scientific methods, back to 2700 B.C., The language of these plates was Greek, and the decoding by professor Fore resulted in the following syllabic text, expressed phonetically: A]RE-DA-TI. DA-MI-U-A-.A-TE-NA-KA-NA-RE (ija)-TE. The phonetic equivalent of this is translated, always according to the professor, as: “Ιδού τι εγώ η Αρεδάτις δίδω εις την ανασσαν, την θεάν Ρέαν: 100 αίγας, 10 πρόβατα, 3 χοίρους” [Here is what I, Aredatis, gives to the queen- goddess Rea, 100 goats, 10 sheep, 3 pigs]. (See, “Davlos” magazine, issue 107, November 1990, page 6103). Thus, Fore proved that the Greeks were writing and speaking Greek at least 1400 years before the appearance of the Phoenicians and their script in history. But, the archaeological excavations in Greece during the last 15 years have given us many more great surprises: The Greeks were writing using not only Linear A and B, but also a type of writing identical to that of the alphabet since at least 6000 B.C. In fact, at Dispilio, in the lake of Kastoria, in northern Greece, professor G. Houmouziadis discovered a plate with writing very similar to that of the alphabet, which was dated, using radioactive Carbon- 14 and visual photothermal methodology, back to 5250 B.C. (see Davlos, issue 147). Three years later, N. Samson, a curator of the Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities Department, discovered shards of vases (“ostraka”) with letters identical to the present Greek alphabet while excavating at the “Cyclop’s Cave,” on the deserted island of Yioura, near the inhabited island of Alonnissos, in the Northern Sporades island complex. These vases were dated to5,500 to 6,000 B.C. with the same methods (see “Davlos,” issue 185, May 1997). The same archaeologist, while performing excavations on the island of Milos, discovered vessels of the proto-cycladic period (mid-3rd millennium B.C.) with letters identical to the Greek letters:
“X,” “N,” “M,” “K,” “Ξ” [ksi],”Π” [p], “Ο,” & “Ε.” (See N. Samson’s interview in Davlos,issue 204, December 1998, page 12749.)
It is apparent that these archaeological discoveries have given a “comical’ character to the so-called “Phoenician Theory” on the discovery of writing. In addition, these archaeological discoveries have revolutionized chronological dating of Greek history as it is taught today, as well as the world history of civilization itself. (See also the book by Con. Koutrouvelli, “Re- establishing the Chronology of Prehistoric Times based primarily on astronomical information from Ancient Writers,” Davlos Publishing, 1999.)
b) The somewhat mathematical proof
While the house-of-cards which provided “proof”‘ of the so-called “Phoenician alphabet” was being torn down by archaeological discoveries, another overwhelming piece of evidence surfaced. This evidence was offered to us by the 20-year long discreet and timid research of the Greek Language and Writing by a great researcher, Elias Tsatsomoiros. Unfortunately E.Tsatsomoiros passed away on December 19th 1991, after having, however, completed his revolutionary work, History of the Genesis of the Greek Language-from the hunter-gatherer to the time of Zeus-the Deciphering of the Greek Alphabet. The undersigned [writer of this article] had the honor of publishing and editing this work (Davlos Publishing, 1991), but also the honor of having worked closely with the researcher for more than a decade. We had long discussions on the numerous problems arising from the research, and we had published a series of articles in Davlos magazine. This memorable researcher proved in a remarkable way that every letter of the Greek alphabet contained a consistent code meaning, which is literally introduced either exactly or metaphorically within the general meaning of the Greek word it belongs to, as a partial meaning. Consequently, every (ancient) Greek word is basically an acronym (similar to D(imosia) E (picheirisi) H(lektrismou) [=ΔΕΗ in Greek, or as U(nited) N(ations), in English], where every letter provides a significant or less significant notional element, and then, they all together provide the logical definition of the meaning expressed bythe word. The “significant difference” of each word’s meaning is usually provided by the firstletter. Obviously, there is not enough space in this article to present the code meaning of the letters of the Greek alphabet as a whole, as they are analyzed in this revolutionary volume of research in the field of human speech. As an example, I will choose only one of the now days 24 letters (orinaly 27) of the Hellenic alphabet, “Ypsilon” = “Y” or, small case, “u” (pronounced, long-e “eepsilon,” the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet, and familiar to us as “Y” in the so-called “Latin” alphabet– which is nothing more than a variationof the Greek “Chalcidean” alphabet). Ypsilon, therefore, as its shape indicates, has the code meaning of “a cavity” οr, if reversed, of a “convexity.” This meaning is introduced into the words containing this letter, and sometimes, by extension into the meaning of liquids (which, through their natural flow end up filling the “cavity”). I will quickly mention some of the names of vessels and liquids (such as the amphiconical κ-Υ-πελλο which is dated back to 2700 B.C. and is displayed at the Heraklion Museum). One may add to the words mentioned there, many others, such as kot-Y-li, go-Y-ttos, tr-Y-blion, p-Y-xis, amphore-Y-s, b-Y-tion, l-Y-chnos, procho-Y-s, ske-Y-os, etc, all having the meaning of a curvedobject. Also, some other words such as k-Y-hsis (rounding of the stomach ofan eng-Y-os [pregnant] woman); k-Y-ma (curving on the surface of the ocean); cr-Y-pti (curving of the ground); the preposition [h-Y-po] Y-po (meaning under a certain level); h-Y-per (preposition meaning above acertain level); Y-psos =height; and all of the hundreds of words that have h-Y-po or h-Y-per as a prefix, as well as thousands of others. This discovery, which unfortunately has been officially ignored, is a continuation of the forgotten Platonic approach to the problem of language (see Plato’s Cratylus ).
THE HERODOTUS EXTRACT
All the Greek writers who mention the alphabet (they called it “grammata”) consider it a very ancient Greek invention (by Prometheus, Palamedes, Linus, etc). The theory of the Phoenician alphabet was always, and is still, based on an exception to this general rule. Thisexception is an excerpt from Herodotus, that he himself presents as his ‘personal opinion’ (“ως εμοι δοκεει” = “as it seems to me”). This opinion was formed based on the sayings of others, as he himself mentions in the previous paragraphs (“αναπυνθανομενος” = taking information from others). Let us have a look at the Herodotus’ excerpt (History, E 58): [58. As far as the Phoenicians, they, who arrived with Cadmus, including the Gefiraioi, had lived in many other places and introduced also arts (new and unknown) to the Greeks; in fact, and also (some) writing, whichhad not been known to the Greeks before that, as I think, first this writing which was used by all the Phoenicians. With the passing of time, however, the Phoenicians changed this type of writing along with their language.]
The most important thing about this excerpt is that in the critical phrase “… ama tin foni metevallon kai ton rhithmon ton grammaton,” it is disclosed that the Phoenicians-Gefiraioi that went to Viotia with Cadmus brought some form of writing with them. But, as the Phoenicians “changed their language” (they learned Greek, in other words), they also changed their writing (they started writing, therefore, with the existing ancient Greek writing that already existed in Viotia). Although this statement was made by Herodotus, the translators, subsequently, provided the translation [meaning] that the local Greek Viotes and not the Phoenician emigrants changed their language and writing and adopted the Phoenician! This generally incoherent reference to the alphabet, as it has been saved, has been obviously altered and meddled with, who knows by whom and when. Let us look at the suspicious continuation of the text, as it has arrived to us:
Around them (the Phoenicians) lived at that place during that year (year of Cadmus) Ionian Greeks, who received through contact or through teachings by the Phoenicians their writings, changing their own writing which they used little. When using this writing and since this writing had been introduced to Greece by Phoenicians, they called it Phoenician.
Ionian Greeks living around the Phoenicians received the Phoenician writing and, using a few of its letters, since they had altered them and since it was just, they called it Phoenician-to pay tribute to the people who brought it to Greece, is a striking contradiction. Consequently, one can assume that this is a forged paragraph, hypothetically explanatory, which aims to reduce the previous statement “…as they changed their language, they changed their writing,” to an unimportant statement. This is how the “Phoenician Theory” was substantiated and is maintained as an obvious forgery.
The “Phoenician Theory” was established in Europe during a time, when, as the renowned British classical scholar, S. G. Rembroke (The Legacy of Greece, Oxford University Press, 1984) wrote, “The Phoenicians were given an intermediary role “that is not based on any historical information”. A role, in other words, of the transporter of wisdom and civilization from the “chosen” people of Israel to the “uncivilized” nations, and specifically the Greeks. This, of course, could be forgiven, since this was established around THE END of the Medieval Ages, when religious fanaticism and backwardness had reached such a point that the daughter of Agamemnon, Iphigenia, is presented as the daughter of Iephtha; Deukalion is presented (centuries later & copied & twisted,..as…”Noah”(!!)???!!!. Appis is a consul of Joseph? Apollo, Priamos, Tiresias, and Orpheus: of Moses?… the story of the of the Israelites from Egypt to Palestine, and other similar distortions IS A VERY BAD & TWISTED COPPY of the Argonauts is the crossing. The above are noted by Rembroke.
And we conclude: At the time, Hellenism was in comatose spiritual condition regarding national and historical awareness, and therefore totally unable to defend its history and civilization, and for this reason could not react and did not react. Today, it is with ourtolerance that our language is deemed “Indo-European,” and our writing “Phoenician,” our Athena and our Socrates are presented as “Blacks,” and our civilization as “African.” What spiritual situation are we in now? [i.e., What’s our excuse this time?]
Notes: On page 13745 of this article, is a picture of a piece of shard [pottery] dated to 6,000 B.C., found on the islet of Youra of the North Sporades island complex with Greek alphabetical writings. One can see the letters “A,” “Y,” & “D” [alpha, eepsilon, and delta ], almost identical to the Greek letters of the classical alphabets. This finding proves that the Greek alphabet is older than the Greek Linear writings. This finding also completely and definitely disproves the false theory that the Greeks got their alphabet from the Phoenicians, who made their historical appearance around 1300 B.C., in other words about 4,500 to 5,000 years after the creation of this plaque at Youra. On page 13747 are shown letter-symbols from the Proto-cycladic vessels of Milos (mid-third millennium B.C.). One can distinguish the [letter] “X” [chi] to the left and the [letter] “N” to the right. These letters are written just as the letters of the Greek alphabet are written today.
The speech and clear confession of Alexander the Great(Alexandros o Megas) to both Athenians and Persians.
-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘
Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander the First was proud of his Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:
Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of
the Macedonians (“anêr Hellên – Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably
Firstly we intend to examine the ancient evidence onthe way the Ancient Macedonians were defining themselves in reference to their own identity. Concerning their own beliefs about themselves we shall review the available evidence coming from the ancient sources, both Literary and Archaeological.
A. The Literary Evidence
The first available evidence comes from the
Macedonian king Alexander during his speech to Atheneans. Essentially we have a clear confession that Alexanderconsiders himself a Greek.
-Had I not greatly at heart the Common welfare of Greece I should not have come to tell you; but I am myself Greek by descent, (“te gar Hellên genos eimi tôrchaion“) and I would not willingly see Greece exchange freedom for slavery. …If you prosper in this war, forget not to do something for my freedom; consider the risk I have run, out of zeal for the Greek Cause,….I am Alexander of Macedon‘1
Another cited excerpt makes it even more clear that Alexander I
was proud of his Hellenic identity. While speaking to Persians:
Tell your king who sent you how a Greek man, viceroy of
the Macedonians (“anêr Hellên – Makedonôn hyparchos”)has received you hospitably… “
What the word EUROPEmeans?
..THEN one knows..What the wordΕΥΡΩΠΗ (EUROPE)means!!! ..Here: Europa being abducted by Zeus disguised as a bull, detail from an Attic (Attica was – & still is the county of Athens) krater(, 5th century; in the Tarquinia National Museum
From the (ΛΕΞΙΣ)-LEΞΙΣ(=Word) ops(ωψ)…
…comes the unknown maybe complex ευρωπός (Europe = WIDE+ViIEW), but also well-known to us bottleneck (στενωπός – steno+opos = the narrow passage), and: πρόσωπον–prosopon(= person), ενώπιον – enopion= before etc.
After all this opens the way to and from … Europe, as an element of beauty, which etymologically is only the female of “euryopa” we saw in the beginning.
The isolated word is “ευρύοπα” – “evryopa” meaning one who has wide eyes, with whom supervise everything, that perform as the “Pantepoptes”(=Total controlers)..
In our mind now comes theKyklop(s)-Κύκλωψ (κύκλος+ωψ) – kyclos=circle + ops) = one who has a round eye.Ex: Optic etc.
And that in turn reminds us of the Modern Hellenic the Word: presviops – From: πρέσβυς =(=γέρον=geron=elder, as geriatric ) + ωψ-ops [=sight, up vision)] = one who suffers from (πρεσβυωπία)-presbyopia, ie. By inability to clearly distinguish near objects, which is common in the elderly, and the SA (Ancient) myopic (who constricts eyelids to public).The surprises continue as it is clear from the myo (= close lips) produced another series of words, such as the little-known myzo (= drink with closed lips, suck, suck), which we find among others, Xenophon (Snooze . 4,5,27):
The above sciences are interrelated with the Ancient Hellenic Language and are into each another like Russian bampouskes. Combine alphabet enclosing numbers and musical tones with these 4 disciplines.
1.Astronomia = + astir law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern what is not based somewhere, who have to do with music (harmony),shapes (geometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
2.The Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres thus speak a language that has to do with the flow of the universe.
The enormous importance of music for the Pythagoreans
<<<<<<<<PYTHAGORAS AND MUSIC>>>>>>>
So it said that Pythagoras, and practice once, with the help spondiakou State played a piper, extinguished the rage of an intoxicated young Tafromenitou, who during the night attacked with loud voices against his mistress at the door of his rival by drawing to set fire to the house. And so, being in a tizzy and he is steady due to the Phrygian melody lumen. This passion has rapidly healed Pythagoras, who happened at that moment, at an inappropriate time, to deal with the laws governing the stars. Then said the piper to turn the Phrygian melody spondaic, with which the young man, having calmed down, returned immediately and decency in his house, and just now not only tolerated by Pythagoras or admonition, but with fury and insults He had refused to meet him.
Ancient Greek Language is the only one that is not based on the fact that some people just sit and agreed to call an object “x” or “y” as all other sterile world languages. The Ancient Greek language is a mathematical masterpiece that will try to approach
Written text 7270 YEARS THAT FOUND IN KASTORIA overturns ALL!
GREEKS discover ALPHABET
Once again is the Phoenician Deception Revealed!
The MYTH about the … “Phoenician … Alphabet” !!!
The first written text in Europe – In 1998 Professor. G.. Hourmouziadis said the publication of the text is impossible!
It is evident that any official publication would upset the entire history of discovery on scene of writing, imprinting the articulate voice of man with letters (and not ideograms) and even in the territory of Greece, in the territory of Europe.
It overturned ie the theory that the Greeks were they, light from the east (from Babylonian, Sumerian, palm trees, etc. !!) And we had to fill the big gap of four thousand years, ie when the Eastern peoples expressed by ideograms The Greeks wrote with syllables as today. It is obvious that indicates early stage thought and culture.
According to today’s theory – taught in Greek schools – the Greeks learned writing around 800 BC “by the …..Phoenicians”(!!).
What they can NOT explain to us how the Ancient Greek language may have 800,000 entries, first language on the planet, when the next has 250,000 entries.
How can the Homeric epics were written around 800 BC ie when they learned to write Greek?
Suddenly encountered the ancient Greeks on the historical scene in the 8th century BC, with the language of hundreds of thousands of entries, which is required to create linguistic prehistory least 10,000 years (according to official American linguistic exposure).
The English language is 1,600 years old and has 48% Greek words with a total of 240,000 entries. The German is 1,700 years old and has 250,000 entries with Greek words 46%.
What troubles the historians, or because they were not lost in the dust of history and the Greeks as the Canaanites, the Sumerians, the Babylonians, the Phoenicians, etc .;
The oldest organized written text found in the land of Europe and dates from before 7254 years (!) Today revealed the lake of Kastoria.
It is a wooden plaque engraved with an unknown message from a Neolithic fisherman or dealer limniaiou prehistoric settlement in dispilio, written two thousand yearsbefore the written findings of the Sumerians and four thousand years before cretomycenean clay tablets of linear writing. The shocking announcement made yesterday during the archaeological conference for this year’s excavation work in Northern Greece Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki Mr. George Hourmouziadis, the document revealed during excavation last summer.
The wooden sign with the inscription dated accurately by the method of carbon-14 in the “Democritus” in 5260 (!) BC, at the end of the Middle Neolithic period.
Mr. Hourmouziadis scientific arguments concluded that the engravings of the inscription, which is organized into verses should not be decorative, but “letters” that can be integrated into the palaioeuropean system.
Linear B tablets from Pylos. Used by Ventris to decipher language as Greek. 13th century BC
Tip: Astronomy = astir + Law, a-Justice = is not supported, so astronomy = the universal laws that govern weometry) numbers (mathematics ) and all the ether that surrounds the heavenly realms.
Tip 2: Pythagoras heard the harmony (music) of the celestial Spheres
So to speak the Ancient Greek language that has to do with the flow of the universe.
It`s is the only language, that can be used for H / Y due mathimatica and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS(=Position: Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc if now these words to translate in English are totally unrelated.
That is not the Alphabet to be copied from somewhere else seen from that in the year 900 before the beginning of the Christian dating, Homer already available to the 6.5 million primary words (present tense and first person singular) that if the multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.
IF we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth in time 100,000 years ago, 500,000 years ago? Who knows…
But the ultimate proof is mathimatikotita itself of which does not exist in any other language of the world.
Do not even forget that Creation uses mathematics, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1). Also the same mathematics have not been anywhere else as you read the following article by clicking HERE
But before the “crypt” is the “means”, ie the connection of words with meanings. We said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that the subject of so and so will call it “X”, which makes the languages sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.
How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? Especially the multiple aspects of this? Can not. Here’s why it all started here. It means then is the connection between the mark and the signified, that the word itself is created in a way that describes the meaning esokleinei inside.
Example: the naming of the word curry (Walnut) comes from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with their ker.ata hear the “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name hold or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). Curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.
The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe relevant concepts, which are derived from observation of nature ie of Creation, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers and yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones hide inside Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?
Let’s analyze grammatically the word ΕΡΩΣ (“EROS”=”LOVE”)
Ε= Εκπορευόμενη Δύναμις (του φωτός) = emanating Force (light)
Ρ= Ροή πρωτίστως Φωτοενεργειών, = flow primarity Photoenergy
Ω= Ο πλανήτης – γήινο πεδίο The planet= The Earth Field
Σ= Το εσωτερικόν θεώμενον = The inner being viewed
The word ΕΡΩΣ – EROS O + S is the flow of the power of light (life-knowledge) from the universe to the earthly plane and into the depths of ourselves.
In Hesiod’s Theogony the update is one of the three authorities (Chaos, Gaia, Eros). Light encloses the knowledge, life, beauty, beauty, serenity, happiness, goodness, love, harmony, etc ..
Eros is not only that which exists between a man and a woman if CHAOS EROS GAIA preexisting human. EROS between the universe to the earth, harmony of nature eg rain and vegetation, even in combination with the human element, eg a man and a beautiful evening sunset or generally anything that offers harmony and therefore bliss.
One aspect of Eros is also the harmony between man and woman which yields the holy genesis. The harmony stems from the duality of 0/1, Masculine (1) and the Feminine (c). The 0/0 or 1/1 not create because it is cosmic disharmony. The word then “Eros” means nothing aphrodisiac (sexual) but a higher spiritual state, do not forget that the word priest comes from there.
Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “PRINCIPLE OF WISDOM The NAMES EPISKEPSIS”.
The Greek alphabet became the basis for the creation of the Latin alphabet. Indeed, the Latin alphabet comes from the Etruscan alphabet which in turn, and in line with the prevailing view today, based on the Greek.
The development of the alphabet
The Alexandrian grammarclassifying sixteen letters in the first Greek alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, R the S, T and Y. Later followed the I, P and X. By adding the letters G, O, D, H and Z was born the Ionic alphabet. In ancient Greek inscriptions found three variants of the alphabet: the Aeolian or Dorian, the Attic and Ionic.
The wind and the Doric alphabet is found in inscriptions of Thera, Milos, Peloponnese, Boeotia and Great Greece, in Sicily and Southern Italy. The Attic alphabet (the Attic letters) we find the inscriptions in Attica before the era of Euclid (402 BC). The Ionic alphabet is found in inscriptions in Ionian Sea and in Asia Minor.
The letters of the Greek alphabet used in Greek numerals. The Greek alphabet is widely used as a symbol tank for use in science or as internationally agreed symbols (eg: π=3,14) or for any suitable use.
Like the Latin alphabet, the Greek used for the count (especially when you are interested in our series), eg All 24 rhapsodies of Odyssey numbered with small letters of the alphabet, while the Iliad to uppercase. Particularly in Astronomy the Greek alphabet used to count the stars, ie alpha Centauri is the brightest star of the constellation Centaurus, while Omega is the 24th in brightness. After the end of Greek letters follow Latin and then followed by Arabic numerals.
Visit the: www.the phoenician deception
Prof. Xenophon Zolotas is a well-known Greek economist. The speeches that follows were given to a foreign audience, at the closing session of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, on September 26, 1957 and on October 2, 1959. Prof. Zolotas held the positions of the Governor of the bank of Greece and the Governor of the Funds for Greece, at that time.
“I always wished to address this Assembly in Greek, but I realized that it would have been indeed Greek to all present in this room. I found out, however, that I could make my address in Greek which would still be English to everybody. With your permission, Mr. Chairman, I shall do it now, using with the exception of articles and prepositions only Greek words.”
I eulogize the archons of the Panethnic Numismatic Thesaurus and the Ecumenical Trapeza for the orthodoxy of their axioms, methods and policies, although there is an episode of cacophony of the Trapeza with Hellas.
With enthusiasm we dialogue and synagonize at the synods of our didymous Organizations in which polymorphous economic ideas and dogmas are analyzed and synthesized.
Our critical problems such as the numismatic plethora generate some agony and melancholy. This phenomenon is characteristic of our epoch. But, to my thesis, we have the dynamism to program therapeutic practices as a prophylaxis from chaos and catastrophe.
In parallel, a panethnic unhypocritical economic synergy and harmonization in a democratic climate is basic.
I apologize for my eccentric monologue. I emphasize my eucharistia to you Kyrie, to the eugenic and generous American Ethnos and to the organizers and protagonists of this Amphictyony and the gastronomic symposia.”
It is Zeus’ anathema on our epoch for the dynamism of our economies and the heresy of our economic methods and policies that we should agonise between the Scylla of numismatic plethora and the Charybdis of economic anaemia.
It is not my idiosyncrasy to be ironic or sarcastic but my diagnosis would be that politicians are rather cryptoplethorists. Although they emphatically stigmatize numismatic plethora, energize it through their tactics and practices.
Our policies have to be based more on economic and less on political criteria.
Our gnomon has to be a metron between political, strategic and philanthropic scopes. Political magic has always been antieconomic.
In an epoch characterised by monopolies, oligopolies, menopsonies, monopolistic antagonism and polymorphous inelasticities, our policies have to be more orthological. But this should not be metamorphosed into plethorophobia which is endemic among academic economists.
Numismatic symmetry should not antagonize economic acme.
A greater harmonization between the practices of the economic and numismatic archons is basic.
Parallel to this, we have to synchronize and harmonize more and more our economic and numismatic policies panethnically.
These scopes are more practical now, when the prognostics of the political and economic barometer are halcyonic.
The history of our didymous organisations in this sphere has been didactic and their gnostic practices will always be a tonic to the polyonymous and idiomorphous ethnical economics. The genesis of the programmed organisations will dynamize these policies. I sympathise, therefore, with the aposties and the hierarchy of our organisations in their zeal to programme orthodox economic and numismatic policies, although I have some logomachy with them.
I apologize for having tyrannized you with my hellenic phraseology.
In my epilogue, I emphasize my eulogy to the philoxenous autochthons of this cosmopolitan metropolis and my encomium to you, Kyrie, and the stenographers.”
Mr Xenophon Zolotas
ETYMOLOGY OF SOME ANCIENTGREEK NAMES.
The word “Macedonia” is of Greek origin. The etymology is: The resident of the ancient area “Makednon” in ancient Greek called “Makednos” (eg, see. Herodotus’ Histories, Book 1, §56: «Makednon kaleomenon”). The root “Mak-” comes from “makos”, the Doric type Atticus “length” (which is the modern Greek word). In short, the “Makednos” meant “tall man”. In the new Greek the word “long”. The same root is the source of the English prefix “macro-“, which identifies several words to mean long (macro; biotic, macro instruction;) or large (macro; cosm, macro; molecule).
The name Alexander (“the Great”) is also of Greek origin. The “Alexander”, consists of two parts in Greek:
the “alex-” is a prefix meaning “protector” so we have modern Greek words “bulletproof (protects from bullets),” lightning rod “(protects from lightning), and” parachute “(protect from falling) .
and “Andreas” is the general word “man.” Homer Odyssey begins as follows:
“Man ennepe muse Polytropon me …” etc. In English the root “andro-” passed in words like “androgynous”, “android”, “Andrew”, and a few more.
Briefly, the “Alexander” means “protector of men”
But any other known ancient Macedonian name is also Greek origin! For example, take the name of Philip, Alexander’s father, started the expansion of the ancient Macedonian nation. And this is Greek. In Greek consists of two parts:
The prefix “pro” meaning “one who likes” or “having a friendly relationship with.” This root passed into English words such as “philosophy”, “philanthropy”, and even in “Philadelphia” and “Philippines”.
And the suffix “-ippos” ie. “Horse”. This root passed into Latin as “hippo-” (the initial h is the performance of the pronunciation of the Greek CSCE), and from there into English words such as “hippopotamus” (hippopotamus; literally “river horse”) and “hippocampus” (hippocampus).
Briefly, “Philip” means “friend of horses”
From the Greek name Philip (Philippos) which means “friend of horses”, composed of the elements friend (philos) “friend” and horse (hippos) “horse”(Ex. Hipppodrome, Hippocrate etc.). This was the name of five kings of Macedon, including Philip II the father of Alexander the Great. The name appears in the New Testament belonging to two people who are regarded as saints. First, one of the twelve apostles, and second, an early figure in the Christian church known as Philip the Deacon.
Latinized form of the Greek name Alexander (Alexandros), which meant “defending men” from Greek Alexis (alexo+andros=of the man:genetivus of aner) “to defend, help” and man (aner-(ἀνήρ`= man)) “andros” (-“ander” in Latin much later). In Greek mythology this was another name of the hero Paris, and it also belongs to several characters in the New Testament. However, the most famous bearer was Alexander the Great, King of Macedon. In the 4th century BC he built a huge empire out of Greece, Egypt, Persia, and parts of India. There he spred with the MOST civilized manners the Greek Civilization & Culture.
He was Highily educated in Philosophy, Astronomy, Music & Martial strategic tactics(the latest from his father). Due to his fame, and later medieval tales involving him, use of his name spread throughout Europe.
Derived from Greek amyntor (amyntor) meaning “defender”. This was the name of several kings of Macedon.
Agathosthenis <good courage + = good (on actions and intellect) + power = the person holding power to think and to do good.
Agoraklis <purchase + market + = glory = glory he has fame in the market
Agorakritos <= purchase about judgment: he judged from the market
Athanasios <a (withdrawal) + at death – death = immortal (gilts. Immortality, Euthanasia etc;)
Athena Atheonoa = <a (superlative) + + God = mind that from the supreme mind (the goddess Athena, xepidise from the head of Zeus). The original name was Athena and is Pelasgic origin
Catherine <del + = always clean cleared
Alexander <Alexia + man (b. The man) = defender, protector men (gilts. Alexandra)
Its complicated by p. Alexis’ spurn – protect “; + a man, so Alexandros originally meant” one who protects the people. ” Somehow many associate some verb Alexis to remove, giving Alexandros the importance of “he who repels men ‘. The importance of this verb is “protect” and we find eg in ancient anthroponymia Aleximvrotos (from vrotos) and Alexinor (ἀνήρ`=the man) which mean “the protector of mortals.” Note that as they have shown great linguists, the name Alexandros is ancient, as already answered in Mycenaean Greek.
Amaryllis = The Shining(from: Amarysso-αμαρυσσω=shine, radiate
Amphiaraos <amfo + ara + st (suffix) = one who mitigates the curse – misfortune
Anargyros <a (withdrawal) + silver (money) = a nonprofit (gilts. ANARGYRON)
Anastasios <at + stasis = the reborn, the eternal (gilts. Anastasia)
Andreas <man (b. Man) = the brave, real man, brave warrior
Andromache <man (b. The man) + fight = the fighting men (ie. The great and fearless warrior) (gilts. Andromache)
Andronikos <man (b. The man) win + = one who conquers men (gilts. Andro+niki)
Antigonus <+ instead gignomai (born) = the worthy with generator father (gilts. Antigone)
Apollo <a (superlative) + + pole las (light bulbs – they lampsis) = one who shines everywhere. According to others: a (withdrawal) many + = one who does not belong to the many
Virtue <a (withdrawal) + = risis unparalleled, perfect, unique
Aristarchus <archo excellent + = one who initiates (heads) of optimum
Aristides <+ excellent OPD (vague: I saw) = the best on the face, the very good looking
Aristomachos <excellent + = the battle honors fighting (gilts. Aristomachos)
Aristonicus <+ excellent victory = one who manages the perfect victory (gilts. Aristonicus)
Aristotle <+ excellent end (purpose) = the perfectionist, one who intends to excellent
Aristophanes <+ excellent Fimios (say, trumpets, spread word) = one who speaks excellent
Artemis <air + = intersect that cuts – crosses the air
Archimedes <start + midomai (meditate) = the ruler of thought
Aspasia <= female kissing the arch. adjective aspasios = happy, happy (male. Aspasios)
Venus <foam + dito (= emerge) = emerging from the foam (sea)
Basil <vasielefs = one who belongs to the king (gilts. Basel)
Speedwell (Veronica) <from the ancient Macedonian name Fereniki> fetch = + victory that brings victory
George <Ca + work = the cultivator of the land, he produced work in the land, the farmer (gilts. Georgia)
Glafkonomi <Owl (or glaucous) + Act = brilliant – wise law
Gregory <= quickly awake, sleepless revved
Damocles <township glory + = the doxazomenos by the municipality (people), the popular
Damofili <township friend + = girlfriend municipality (people), that he loves his people
Despina <= overtop dominant, lady
Demaratus <township + weigh (= heave) = one who elevates (morally) the municipality (population)
Dimaretis <+ municipality virtue (> a + risis) = one who (with his deeds) benefit the municipality (people) (gilts. Dimareti)
Dimitra <da (Doric formula of “land” is a variant of “ca”) + mother = mother earth
Dimitrios = the dedicated to the goddess Demeter
Democritus <township judgment: + = one who is from the municipality (population)
Dimoniki <township + win = win municipality (population)
Demosthenes <township vigor + = one who gives strength to the municipality (population)
Dimostratos <+ troop municipality = one who is called the municipality (population)
Popular (see. Damofili)
Diagoras <Zeus (b. Zeus) + plead one running a speech by the power of Zeus
Dikaiarchou <archo righteous + = one who is righteous ruler
Dikaioklis <righteous glory + = one who glorifies the law
Dikaiopolis <righteous + polis = the righteous citizen
Diogenes <Zeus (b. Zeus) + = the maiden originating from Jupiter
Diocles <Zeus (b. Zeus) + = the glory glorifies Jupiter
Diomedes <Zeus (b. Zeus) + midomai (think =) = the thinking to the will of Zeus
Dionysus <Zeus (born of Zeus) + = the mind come from the mind of Zeus
Peace = eiro (hook)
Helen <elon (B vague weigh = destroy) + nafs (ISO. The NDI = ship) = one for which ships destroyed
Eleftherios <El (name of the Olympians) + ef + summer = one who with his coming will mean better and offered to the gods, in another interpretation:> Elefsis (> el + fair + quake – move) + courage = he who with courage and strength of the gods move everything in a good way
Hermes <EPDM (= ratio) = one who takes the floor
Hermogenes <Hermes (b. Hermes) + = the maiden originating from Mercury genus
Home <through + God = one rushes in (home)
Evangelia <ef + ad = good news, good news
Evangelos <ef = + angel messenger who brings good news
Eyboulos <+ ef parliament (House) = having the benevolent desire
Eunomia <ef Law + = one who defines good laws (gilts. Eunomia)
Eupolis <+ fair city = good citizen
Evridiki <= range + righteous one possessed of great justice (male. Eurydice)
Eurycleia <width + = glory that has great glory (male. Evryklis)
Eurynome <= range + Law that knows many laws (male. Eurynome)
Happiness <+ fair chance that has good luck (male. Eftychios)
Zafirios <sapphire (sapphire) = precious (gilts. Zafiria)
Zeus <Zeo (= life-giving) + ef = the provider good life
Zenobia <Jean (Dorian type of Zeus = Jupiter) + life = that lives thanks to Jupiter
Hegesistratos <lead + = army that led the army (male. Igistratos)
Ira <day (idiom of the word “earth – earth”). In others, an anagram of the word “air”
Herophilus <Ira + = girlfriend that loves Hera
Heron <Ira + s = he who belongs to Hera
Hephaestus <the (increase thanks euphony) + F (Achaean type “to” = light) + istimi (= possess good) = one who is well aware of the fire
Theodore <god + gift = one who is a gift from God
Thersites <Tarshish = one who is impudent
Thrasivoulos <Tarshish + desire = the one who has tharreti (up supercilious) desire
Jason <= Iasis therapist
Hipparchus <= horse + archo he led the horses
Hippodameia <horse + SAMe-oh = one tames horses
Hippocrates <horse + territory-oh = those who control horses
Hippolyte <= horse + unfasten that releases the horses (male. Hippolytus)
Isocrates <= equal + I hold he kept equidistant – equality
Calliope <beauty + hole (= hole mouth in a sense) = the sweet-voiced
Kleovoulos <glory + House = he who wants glory
Kleogenis <glory + = genus-derived glorified genus
Kosmas <comely = he who is kind and kalotropos
Laodice <people + trial = trial people
Laomideia <+ people = midomai the thought of people
Leonidas <lion + = he himself like the lion
Lysistrata <unfasten (future. Solve) + = army that dissolves the army
Maria <glitter (= lighten) = one sparkles [-> Mary (S48 Iliad, Odyssey l326) -> Maria (exevraismos the Greek name)] (male. Marios)
Mede <= midomai the thinking (gilts. Midia)
Nikareti <= victory + virtue that beats with virtue (male. Nikaretos)
Nikiforos <victory fetch = + he made wins
Nikolaos <win + people = one who gives victory to the people (female does not exist in ancient Greek. The new Greek is Nicoletta, epanellinismos the Frankish Nikolette)
Xenokratis <stranger hold + = one who keeps (away) foreign
Xenophanes <stranger fainymi + = one who resembles foreign
Odefssefs <betake + = essomai those found in the street, the Wandering
Homer <OMMA + APD = he who loses his eye, the blind
Orestes <term stand + = one who is on the mountain, the man of the mountain, the Hillbilly
Periandros <+ on man (b. The man) = one who is above the other men
Pericles <+ on = the glory yperdoxos, the amply
Peter <= the stone stable, the steadfast
Penelope <pini (thread) + lepo (unfold) = the weaver
Plato <width + s (= existing) = one who is broad (The philosopher Plato took this name because she had broad chest and forehead. Originally his name was Aristocles.
Pleistonikis <pleistos (superlative of “long”) + win = one who has many victories, the POLYNIKI
Poliarchos <city archo + = one who initiates the town
Poseidon <potos (= river) + yielding one running gives rivers
Prodikos <pre trial + = the chief justice
Protagoras <first market + = one who is first in the market (ie. In common)
Pythagoras <Pytho (= update -> Pytheas) market + = one who informs the market
Sophia <= wisdom, erudition, profound knowledge
Sophocles <wise glory + = glorious for its wisdom
Spyridon <spyris (b. Spyridon = psarokofino) = one who makes baskets for fish
Stratoklis <military glory + = the glorious soldier
Stylianos <column = constant as the column, that one can rely on it (gilts. Styliani)
Socrates <wise + keep one running observes wisely
Sotirios <= savior savior
Telemachus <tele battle + = one who gives battles from afar
Phaedra <= blithe cheerful
Filareti <friend + = virtue that loves virtue (male. Filaret)
Philip <horse friend + = one who loves horses
Philodemus <township friend + = one who loves the municipality (population)
Philostratus <army friend + = one who loves the army
Chariklia <thanks + = the famous glory for the sake of
From the Greek Antigonus (Antigonos) which meant “against the ancestor”, from anti (anti) “against” and parent (goneus) “ancestor”. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals. After Alexander died, he took control of most of Asia Minor.
Latinized form of the Greek name Archelaos (Archelaos), which meant “master of the people” from Aarhus (archos) “master” and Laos (laos) “people”. This was the name of a son of Herod the Great. He ruled over Judea, Samaria and Idumea.
From the Greek name Aristotle (Aristoteles) which meant “the best purpose”, derived from excellent (aristos) “best” and the end (telos) “purpose, aim”. This was the name of a Greek philosopher of the 4th century BC who made lasting contributions to Western thought, including the fields of logic, metaphysics, ethics and biology.
Means “splendid, famous” in Greek. This was the name of one of Alexander the Great’s generals.
The theater of Ephesus
The temple of Artemis was in Ephesus of today’s Turkey. CalledArtemision and was built in 440 BC Considered one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Noteworthy is the fact that it took 120 years to be completed and was originally started by the king of Lydia, Kroisos. Pausanias says that the cult of Artemis of Ephesus was founded by natives of Asia Minor. Today the remnants not resemble anything in the magnificent temple there.The Temple was built of Pentelian marble(fromthe mountain of the best marble quality in Attica county, where Athens is lying) and limestone materials carried by ship over from neighboring Penteli. Somewhere 120 marble columns supporting the main part of the church. Each column had a height of 20 meters. Huge boulders were transported there with pulleys and connected with metal pins. After the completion of the roof decorated artists building with wonderful carved scenes. In the middle of the temple was a marble statue of Artemis. The temple was one of the greatest of the classical world, much larger than the Parthenon in Athens was built later. The base of the foundation had length 131 meters and width 79 meters.
The only restored columns that exists today. But still more glorious ruins of the city, a theater, a library, baths and many other public buildings.
IROSTRATOS AND ALEXANDER
Two hundred years later, in 356 BC The temple was destroyed by fire. Fire someone put the Irostratos, who wanted in this way to become famous(!).
By coincidence, the day of the destruction of the temple, Alexander the Great was born. Later, Alexandervisited Ephesus and gave the order to build the temple again in the same position.
THE FINAL DESTRUCTION
The temple of Alexander survived until the 3rd AD century. With the passage of time the mud engulfed the port of Ephesus and the city ended up insignificant! The Goths then ransacked the temple and floods completed the destruction Today what remains of the temple in Ephesus are few boulders foundations and restored only one column!
The temple of Artemis (Diana in Latin), as it should have been 600 BC It had 120 columns of marble and were decorated with beautiful sculptures.
Croesus was the last king of Lydia, a region of Asia Minor. It was known for its many riches. 560 BC commanded to build a magnificent temple in Ephesus.
Heraclitus the Great: The Greek who bows to Modern Science
Heraclitus (540-475 BCE) of Ephesos, as opposed to the Eleatics philosophers who had introduced the stillness of Being, ever preached the mainstream and non metavallesthai never this menein.
Every birth, in Heraclitus, is the product of the elements of nature are in constant struggle and opposition. On the struggle of elements is born the harmony. Without “this enantiodromia” as he says, there would be no life. So I extols the war of the elements as the father of all things, and the motivation fire.
Excess heat means excess movement and consciousness.
Excess cold, mean immobility and deadness
All doctrines and all isms is excess cold, ie. Are immobile and therefore dead. ism is the logic. Some well known isms that keep the dead man, Christianity, Hellenism, culture, calculus, champioship, skepticism, statism, materialism, naturalism, enlightenment, minimalism, futurism, imperialism, surrealism, cynicism, metallismos, meditation, sadism, Islam, Taoism, Buddhism, romance and dozens frozen (cold) and therefore dead systems are the gravestone of the human soul. Those who said dark Heraclitus are frozen, because it is impossible for ice to capture the warmth and flow of fire.
Heraclitus regarded as one of the earliest philosophers, recognizing the universality of change and development through internal contradictions.
Disagreed with Thales, Anaximander and Pythagoras about the nature of the final substance, but instead argued that the nature of all things is change itself. It uses the fire metaphorically rather than as the monism hardware solution. This led to the belief that change is true and the false stability.
For Heraclitus (and modern Quantum) everything is in “liquidity” as excommunicated by the famous “TA PANTA REI”(=”Everything flows”
Heraclitus lived in Ephesus, Athenian colony of the coast of Lydia in Asia Minor native of royal family. It seems that lived distant lives and harbored deep contempt for the masses and democratic institutions of his time, contempt summarized in the phrase of
‘To Me myriad EI Left or “… only one man is worth ten thousand long as it is the best.
The subversive philosophical views and the challenging nature of the course not favored its popularity. He mentioned about him that wrote the aphorisms in thin gold plates where kept in the vaults of the Temple, where thoughts will become known only after his death. The philosophical thinking of Heraclitus revolves around four fundamental points.
War, confrontation between opposites,
and the fire – fire as “element”, as a natural substance identical to the diversity of existing things.
1> The scene is the constant change of all things from one state to another. The whole world is a constantly changing, nothing stays the same form. (Except -isms) Life itself is a continuous change from one state to another.
Everything flows, null in this menein everything flows and all is lost, incessantly and it is this continuous change which constitutes the very meaning of the world, the fundamental principle, the ultimate importance. Says Heraclitus
“Potamῷ gar CDR Estin emvinai billion tῷ aftῷ itself” Heraclitus nor mortal substance twice apsasthai against serial (this); but “acidification and rapid change skidnisi again draws (you probably do not, nor again ODS” hysteria, but “AMA recommended deletions,) and proseisi and apeisi “.
… We can not enter twice in the same river, in Heraclitus, neither n “touch twice a mortal substance, because scattered again gather with the sharpness and speed of change, (and not again, nor later, but at the same time It appears and disappears) and approaching and removed.
The setting for Heraclitus constitutes the principle underlying the world which is the beginning. This is where the same and does not change the environment of all things change, is change itself. Every thing, indeed, is at some point in its existence, a situation which is contrary to all the others, every thing being extended, that which is not another. To be something, every thing requires multiple to extract the specific nature of the confrontation with the other things.
But before interpret as a reflection in time, the testimony of Heraclitus produces a sense of becoming clear. The scene, the transformation of things, determined by the same confrontation between things, the change inherent (demanding captive) confrontation of opposites things.
2)The War, the opposition between the opposites. Consequently each thing is what it is because it has other things which define the essence, for example, we know that is the day we know the night. Therefore we define a day as that which opposes the night, if there was the night we could not know what is the day. Heraclitus says that there would be no light without darkness, health without illness, satiation without hunger, every thing is close to the definition of the comparison with the others.
“War father of everything” is also one of the known explicitly connected in substance with the “Everything flows” as everything in the universe is in constant motion and process = at war.
Any thing to exist and to set requires, and other things in a way that reflects the identity compared to the other. This concept is defined by Heraclitus as war or conflict between the opposites (flame vs ice).
Things are constantly involved in the other (for example, the day is included in the night, cold to heat the liquid to dry), and it is this dispute which creates that necessary balance which perpetuates the existence of everything. (NB. If the creation there is war, there is no creation).
3> The Word. The supreme law which governs the world, where he balances instead allowing the harmony in the world identified with the speech, reason. In this word can be assigned multiple meanings: lecture, judgment, intelligence, law, thought, logic, fundamental rule of all things, all meanings which are assimilated in the sense of crisis which reflects the operation of the world in all its facets. Heraclitus divides people into sleeper and egermenous (the latter is the wise, the few, the fiery, while first the common people, the mass, the many, are frozen). The law which is expressed by the ratio, ie understanding the true relations which are installed between things, is available to all, but is not the same all the people, some believe this law will be better than others under the respective mental faculties.
Anyone will be able to understand why the more you approach the truth and the authentic wisdom. For Heraclitus is not wise one who knows a large number of things,but the one, who knows where to best collect from others, the nature of the relations which are installed between things.
The ratio reflects and clarifies, the structure of all those contrasts between things which make possible the scene and life itself in the universe, the reason is the structure itself, the law which expresses all the relationships. All things of the world, as we have seen, are treated by the opposition, namely the necessary relationships which are installed together, the ratio represents the fixed set of these relations, their own map.
The relationship of people to the ratio expresses the relationship with the truth. The law and order of Everything is an eternal Speech (ratio) which is offered in the hearing of all. Most of akroazontai, but not know how to listen. Each day of the meet each other and not immediately understand it. therefore live with the dream as separate from that which is “public”, ie the law of Everything.
There is nothing permanent except change. Irakleitos4> The fire (fire) as “element”. If the single principle which assimilates all things in the world is becoming, for Heraclitus natural element from which all other elements are made, is fire. This is because the fire is considered as an element apostatherotiko, able to cause that change which allows things to be converted from one state to another. He studied the Chaos Theory.
According Heracletus from the fire gases are released, the gases are water, water immediately evaporates, leaving residues which go to synthesize all solids. This idea of fire as a destructive element and creative, will continue later from the Stoics, along with the concept of speech.
When Socrates read the Heraclitus project, he said: “what I realized is great, but I think it is equally important and what I could not understand … But you have to be an avid swimmer like them from Delos to not drown in of ‘book.
Apart from the known, and it by half, “Everything flows, null in this menein” There are many remarkable and rich to feed the thought poetic words of Heraclitus, read and use them in your daily routine to get a trickle of wisdom of the great philosopher. What I recommend to put on the good in your life are the four main points of the philosophy of the great Heraclitus. Although able to understand, you are already on the path of freedom.
The enormous peristyle, which formed four great porticoes around the courtyard, consisted of 60Doric columns. In the round chamber which Heuzey named the ‘tholos’ to the east of the propylon, a dedicatory was found. The 5 rooms on the south side had mosaic floors, one of which – executed in pebbles – survives in excellent condition. You can see one the Greek key pattern surrounding the mosaic floor. Finally, the most important archaeological found that combine Greek key/meander and vergina sun/star is the Ivory Shield that was found in pieces in Philip´s tomb at Vergina archaeological site. The arduous process of restoration took several years – it is indeed a unique masterpiece of the 4th century B.C. You can see clearly these pan–Hellenic symbols in the picture at the beginning of the article.References 1- Times of Remedies and Moon Phases by C. M. Boger, page 1322- Sally Hutchison Ceely-Geometric Style in Art, Wisconsin Academy oj Sciences, Arts and Leiters,Vol. 71, Part 2, 1983, page 3 3- .The Way of the Labyrinth by Helen Curry, pages 21-23 5- “Vergina Sun” or the “Rays of the Sun God” ?
“Hellenism, the historical course of 4000 years, created huge multinational empires (multinationals, but never multicultural, as stated by the great Greek Byzantinist Helen Glykatzi-Ahrweiler), vast kingdoms, had trade relations with dozens of peoples and countries, but often suffered barbarian invasions and peoples conquered wholly or partly by foreign armies and displaced parts of the eternal Greek territories.
The result of all these historical developments, during the Byzantine time some Greek populations to speak differnt other languages, as some Asia Minor (Turkish-speaking Greeks) to speak Latin, (Vlach-speaking Greeks), to speak slavic (Slav-speaking Greeks) to speak Albanic(arvanitofonoi Greeks), or italian (the Grekanoi of Magna Grecia in southern Italy).
The Persians referred to the Macedonians as “Yaunã Takabara” (“Greeks with hats that look like shields”).
From the Greek name Cleopatra (Kleopatra) which meant “glory of the father”, derived from glory (kleos) “glory” combined with father (patros) “of the father”. This was the name of queens of Egypt from the Ptolemaic royal family, including Cleopatra VII, the mistress of both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After being defeated by Augustus she committed suicide by allowing herself to be bitten by an asp. Shakespeare’s tragedy ‘Antony and Cleopatra’ (1606) is based on her.
The Macedonian name Perdikkas obviusly means “famously just” [ca (t) – + righteous], but to accept it we must “prove” somehow the doubling of the letter “k” in the theme “trial”, meaning “justice”.
Hellenic Quest called an e-learning program that Greek as CNN began distributing worldwide and intended initially for English speakers and Spanish speakers.
The teaching method is to view information on the screen of the / Y while sound and moving image transmission.
CNN, in collaboration with the apple computer company prepared a Greek easy tutorial and English-speaking US Hispanics. The rationale behind this initiative was that the Greek intensifies rational spirit, scrapes entrepreneurship and encourages citizens to creativity.
The program is produced by the large corporation The H / Y Apple, o Chairman of which John Scully said: We decided to push the Greek tutorial, because our society needs a tool that will allow todiscover so far.
In other words, this is a manifestation of the tendency to return to the spirit world culture and language of the Ancent Greeks.
Another related event: The English businessmen motivate senior executives to learn Ancient Greek because they contain a special meaning for the areas of organization and management companies.
In this conclusion already led after British special findings that the Greek language reinforces the logic and stimulates leadership abilities. So it has great value, not only in computer science and high technology, but also in organization and administration ..
These properties of Greek led the California University Irmain take the hoarding of wealth … Head of program placed the linguist –Ellinistria- Mac Ntonali and teachers e Brunner and Pakari.
In The H/ Y Imyko were evaluated 6 million verbal formulas of the Ancient Greek o language when English has a total of 490,000 words and 300 … 000 technical terms, ie as a language is only 1/100 of our own. In Imyko categorized 8,000 4,000 ancient Greek writings and the work continues.
Talking about it Professor Brunner said: Anyone who wonder why so many millions of dollars for the hoarding of words of Greek respond: But this is the language of our ancestors. And our contact with them will improve the Hellenique=Greek) culture.
The promoters of the program estimate that the Greek verbal types will reach the 90 million, compared with nine million Latin. Interest in the Greek resulted from the recording of information and computer scientists that the H / PC advanced technology accept as sign language only the Greek.
All other languages featured semantic.
Sign language is considered the language in which the signifier, that is the word, and the signified, that is, the word expresses (thing, idea, state), have among their primary relationship. While semantic is the language in which arbitrarily defined that American thing (signified) meant by am (signifier).
In other words, the Ancient Greek language is the only languagewhose words have primogeniture, while in all other, words are symmatikes mean, that is something, just because it ‘agreed’ among those who use it.
ALL of the words in Greek means eg the word
Enthusiasm = En+theo – εν-Θεώ (=In-God)
geometry = earth + count – γaia +μετρώ – gai+metro
Anthropos(=man = the inarticulate (the articulated reason)(άνθρωπος = ο άναρθρων (ο αρθρώνων λόγο)..
We say causal relationship between word-thing, which is nonexistent in other languages.
The most perfect Imykos programs Knowledge and Newton represent the verbal formulas of integrals in Greek and in perfect representational shapes, which can not do in other languages.
This is because the Greek has a mathematical structure that allows the harmonious geometrical display. <> Particularly useful are the Greek suffixes AS:
tele, landi = … LAND, GEO … nano, micro, mega, purpose … .ismos, ELECTRO …., cyclo …., TUNER …., MACRO …., SMALL …., TRAY …., writes … LETTER … PLUS … … SYM, etc .. Example:
THE KNOWN TO ALL CD = COMPACT DISK = DISK SYMPAKTOMENOS
Computers consider the Greek language “not marginal ‘, ie that only in that there are no limits and so it is necessary to new disciplines such as Information Technology, Electronics, the Government and others.
These sciences only in the Greek language find mental expressions they need, without which scientific thought is unable to proceed.
For these reasons the Spanish MEPs sought to introduce Greek as the official European Union because to speak of a united Europe without the Greek is like talking to a blind man about colors.
Of course, it can`t that all suddenly it becomes ‘out of nowhere’ to display a Homer and written two literary masterpieces, it is obvious that long ago should have been a language (and writing) high level. Indeed, from the ancient Greek Secretariat know that Homer was not the first but the last and most famous of a long line of epic poets, whose names have survived (Kreofylos, Prodikos, Arktinos, Antimachus, Kinaithon, Callimachus) and the names of their works (Foronis, Fokais, Danais, Negress, Progeny, Oedipal, Thebes …) have not yet been rescued themselves their projects.
POSSIBLE CREATION OF NEW WORDS
The power of the Greek language is its ability to be molded not only prefix or conclusive but varying in some cases up to the root of the word (eg, “Run” and “wheel” even though they are from the same family differ slightly the root).
The Greek language is qualified to create compound words with incredible potential uses, multiplying the vocabulary.
The International Dictionary Webster’s (Webster’s New International Dictionary) says: “The Latin and Greek, especially the Greek, an inexhaustible source of material for creating scientific terms,” while the French lexicographers Jean Bouffartigue and Anne-Marie Delrieu emphasized: “Science finds constantly new objects or concepts. He named them. The treasure of the Greek roots in front of her as long as you draw from there. It would be very surprising not to find those in need. “
The French writer Jacques Lakarrier, stunned in front of the grandeur of Greek, had declared relatively: “The Greek language has the characteristic to offer on the wonderful expression of all hierarchies with a simple rotation of the first component. One has only to put a pan – first – initial over- or any other intention in front of a subject. And if you combine together these prefixes, it takes an endless variety of gradations. The prefixes enclosed in the hand, not as a semantic scale, which rises towards the sky of words. “
In Homer’s Iliad Thetis mourning that will get the son of killing Hector “dione and dysaristotokeian it calls”. The word itself is a dirge, dys + excellent + whelp (= calve) and means such analyzes Etymologicum Mega “, which gave birth to evil excellent.”
A few years ago was released in Switzerland in dictionary nonexistent words (Dictionnaire Des Mots Inexistants) proposing to replace French with circumlocutions monolectic terms from the Greek. Egandropreie(=MANacting), biopaleste, dysparegorete, ecogeniarche, elpidophore(=Hope+carry), glossoctonie, philomatheem(=learnloving) tachymathie(=Quick learning), theopempte etc. about 2,000 entries with scope for further enrichment.
NOT for chauvinistic reasons,
But to learn slowly are unaware of the truth!
That is not the Alphabet is copied from elsewhere seen in that in the year 2300 BC by Homer already at the disposal of 6,500,000 primary words (first person singular present tense &) which if you multiply CH72 which calls will draw a huge number which is not the final, because do not forget that the Greek language is not sterile, born.The Greek language is the only one that can be used for H / Y due mathematical and musicality not only the alphabet-word, but the mathematical concepts generated eg The word becomes THESIS(=position): Synthesis, assault, filing, hypothesis, Exposition, Addition, prothesis, anaThesis, available Antithesis etc etc if now these words the English translation is completely unrelated.
If we compare now eg the English language has 80,000 words, of which 80% are Greek as we inform the University of Wales, and measure that this sterile language evolves 1000 years, we effortlessly draw the conclusion that Homer receives a language which has a depth the year 100,000 BC; 500,000 BC; who knows …
But the ultimate proof is the same of the mathematic structure, which does not exist in any other language of the world. Do not even forget that the Creator uses math to create, so our language is necessarily related to the source (root-0/1).
But before the “crypt” is the “Signifier”, ie the connection of words with meanings. He said earlier that foreign dialects defined by agreement, ie some agreed that such and such a subject would call it “X”, which makes the languages sterile, so they can give birth to new words, so there mathimatikotita therefore can not describe new concepts that exist in nature, resulting in the brain where it can not describe through new words new meanings remain in the dark, so the neurons of the brain does not generate new as opposed to those who use the Greek.
How could eg the English or the French or the X, Y with a word that has 10 concepts to describe accurately and therefore clearly a deeper meaning? let alone the multiple aspects of this? It can not be So why all started here. It means therefore is connecting the signal to the signified, that the word itself is generated in such a manner that describes the meaning esokleinei instruments.
Example: The naming of the word curry (Walnut), as we read in thesecretrealtruth, from an observation of nature (as all words), ie when two horned animals (Rams, goats etc.) tra.kar.oun with ker.ata their sounds “crack” or “fem”, the sound he gave the name “horn” (horn) the horn gave the name of the State or skull (head) and the nicknames of this curry (small head). curry (nut) looks amazing to the human head and the interior of the brain.
Y is the root of the verb YO (rain) where Y is concavity (or convexity) that mates something, rain (water element) enters (nest) into the earth.
The musical – numeric alphabet creates musical – mathematical words that describe respective concepts which come from the observation of nature ie of Creation so by extension of the same Creator, but the question is how many millennia may be needed to create this perfect mathematical complex letters are numbers, yet musical tones and words that all the numbers and music tones into their hide Except for complex musical harmonies, concepts which are not random at all but after extensive observation of nature?
Arguably, therefore our Antisthenes recalls “wisdom Authority names visitation”
De Groot (Netherlands Homeric texts professor at the University of Montreal)
“The Greek language has continuity and teaches to be ownerless and got a glory, that an opinion. In this language there is no orthodoxy. So even if the education system wants people law-abiding – a mold – the spirit of ancient texts and language in learning to be a boss. “
James Joyce (Famous Irish author, 1882-1941)
“Almost afraid to touch the Odyssey, the oppressive beauty is unbearable.”
The great French writer Jacques Lakarrier said:
“In Greek there is a vertigo of words, because only she explored, recorded and analyzed the innermost processes of speech and language, more than any other language.”
The great French enlightener Voltaire had said
“May the Greek language to become common all peoples.”
The French professor at the Sorbonne said Charles Foriel
“The Greek has homogeneity as the German, but richer than that. He has the clarity of the French, but it has greater precision. It is more flexible than the Italian and much more harmonious than the Spanish. Is that what it takes to be considered the most beautiful language of Europe. “
Marianna McDonald, professor of the University of California and Head of TLG said
“Knowledge of Greek is essential foundation of high cultural cultivation.”
The blind American writer Helen Keller had told
“If the violin is the most perfect musical instrument, the Greek language is the violin of human thought.”
John Goethe (The greatest poet of Germany, 1749-1832)
“I listened to St. Peter’s in Rome the Gospel in all languages. The Greek resonated star glowing in the night. “
Dialogue of Goethe with his disciples:
-Daskale What to read to become wise as you?
-the Greek classics.
-And When we finish the Greek classics what to read?
-Old Greek classics.
George Bernard Shaw (Great Irish playwright, 1856-1950)
“If the library of your home you do not have the works of ancient Greek authors, then you live in a house without light.”
Mark Tillios Cicero (the foremost man of ancient Rome, 106-43 BC)
“If the gods speak, then certainly use the language of the Greeks.”
Humphrey Kitty (English professor at the University of Bristol, 1968)
“It’s the nature of the Greek language is clean, precise and complex. The ambiguity and lack of direct enoraseos featuring sometimes English and German, is completely foreign to the Greek language. “
Irina Kovaleva (Modern Russian professor at the University Lomonosov, 1995)
“The Greek language is beautiful like heaven to the stars.”
RH Robins (Contemporary English linguist, professor at the University of London)
“Of course not only in linguistics where Greeks were pioneers in Europe. Overall Europe’s spiritual life goes back to the work of Greek thinkers.
Even today we return unceasingly in Greek heritage to find stimulation and encouragement. “
Frederick Sagkredo (Basque linguistics professor – Chairman of the Greek Academy of Vaskonias)
“The Greek language is the best legacy that has been available to the man on the evolution of the brain. Against all Greek and insist all languages are inadequate. “
“The ancient Greek language should become the second language of all Europeans, especially the cultured people.”
“The Greek language is of divine essence.”
Heinrich Schliemann (Renowned amateur archaeologist, 1822-1890)
“Everything I wanted passionately to learn Greek. I did not do it because I was afraid that the deep charm of this magnificent language would absorb so much that would have removed my other activities. “(The Schliemann spoke 18 languages seamlessly. For two years did nothing other than the studying 2 poems of Homer).
Ibn Khaldoun (Largest Arab historian)
“Where is the secretariat of the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians? All mankind has inherited the secretariat of the Greeks alone. “
Will Durant (American historian and philosopher, professor at the University of Columbia)
“Our alphabet came from Greece by Kimi and Rome. Our language is littered Greek words. Our science esfyrilatise Mian international language by the Greek terms. Our grammar and our rhetoric, even the punctuation and the division areas paragraphs … is Greek inventions. Our genres are Greeks – the lyric, the ode, the romance, the novel, the essay, the prosfonisis, biography, history and above all the vision. And almost all of these words are Greek. “
Jacqueline de Romigy (Modern French Academician and author)
“Ancient Greece offers us a language, which will say that it is universal.”
“Everyone needs to learn Greek, because the Greek language helps us first of all to understand our own language.”
Bruno Snell (Distinguished Professor at the University of Hamburg)
“The Greek language is the past of the Europeans.”
Frangkiskos Ligkora (Modern Italian university professor and president of the International Academy for the dissemination of culture)
“Greeks can be proud to speak the Greek language alive and the mother of all other languages. Do not neglect, since this is one of the few goods we have left and also your passport to the world civilization. “
The. Vantrouska (Professor of Linguistics at the University of Vienna)
“For a Japanese or Turkish, all European languages are not seen as separate but as dialects of one and the same language, Greek.”
Peter Jones (PhD – Professor at Oxford University who drafted lessons of ancient Greek WITH readership, for publication in the newspaper «DailyTelegraph»)
The Greeks of Athens in the 5th and 4th century had reached the language to the point that with her to explore ideas such as democracy and the origins of the universe, concepts such as sulfur and law. It is a wonderful and great language. “
Gilbert Murray (Professor, University of Oxford)
“The Greek is the perfect language. Often one finds that a thought can be expressed with ease and grace in Greek, and becomes difficult and severe in Latin, English, French or German. It is the perfect language, because it expresses the thoughts most perfect people. “
Max Von Laye (Nobel Prize in Physics)
“I Graces in divine providence, because it pleased to teach ancient Greek, who helped me to penetrate deeper into the meaning of science.”
E, Norden (the great German philologist)
“In addition to Chinese and Japanese, all other languages were formed under the influence of Greek, from which they took, besides many words, rules and grammar.”
Martin Heidegger (German philosopher, of the main representatives of existentialism in the 20th century)
“The ancient Greek language belongs to the standards through which showcase the spiritual forces of creative genius, because with respect to the possibilities provided in thought, is the most powerful and yet the most witty of all languages of the world.”
David Crystal (Aka English professor, author of the Encyclopedia of Cambridge for the English)
“It’s amazing to see how much more we rely on the Greek, to talk about entities and events at the heart of modern life.”
Michael Ventris (The man who deciphered the Linear B)
“The ancient Greek language was and is higher all the old and new languages.”
R.H. Robins (Linguist and author)
“The Greek triumph in the spiritual culture is that gave so much to so many sectors […]. Their achievements in the field of linguistics which was extremely strong, ie the theory of grammar and grammatical description of the language is strong enough to merit and to withstand criticism. Also be such as to inspire gratitude and our admiration. “
Luis José Navarro (Deputy to the educational program “Evroklassika” of the EU)
“The Greek language for me is like cosmogony. It is not just a language … “
Juan Jose Puhana Arza (Basque Hellenist and politician)
“We must proclaim that there has been in the world a language which can be compared to the classical Greek.”
D’Eichtal (French author)
“The Greek language is a language which has all the features, all the conditions of an international tongue … touches these same beginnings of civilization … which not only there was no stranger to none of the major events of the human spirit, religion, in politics, in literature, the arts, the sciences, but was also the first tool – to scan all these – so to speak, the womb … Language logic while euphonic, among all the other … “
Theodore F. Brunner (TLG founder and director until 1997)
“Anyone who wonder why so many millions of dollars spent on the hoarding of Greek words, we reply: But this is the language of our ancestors and contact with them will improve our culture.”
Jacques Lang (French Ministry of Education)
“I would like to see to learn Ancient Greek, with the same zeal that we demonstrate, and Greek schools.”
In his work “A Brief History of the Greek Language” by the famous linguist A.. Meillet, supported strongly the superiority of Greek over other languages.
The name of Apollo itself—though not Paean, a possible name of a precursor god to or epithet of him—is generally considered to be absent from the Linear B (Mycenean Greek) texts although it is possible that the name is in fact attested in the lacunose form ]pe-rjo-[ (Linear B: ]-[) on the KN E 842 tablet.The spelling Ἀπόλλων (pronounced [a.pól.lɔːn] in Classical Attic) had almost superseded all other forms by the beginning of the common era, but the Doric form Apellon (Ἀπέλλων), is more archaic, derived from an earlier *Ἀπέλjων. It probably is a cognate to the Doric month Apellaios (Ἀπελλαῖος), and the offerings apellaia (ἀπελλαῖα) at the initiation of the young men during the family-festival apellai (ἀπέλλαι).According to some scholars the words are derived from the Doric word apella (ἀπέλλα), which originally meant “wall,” “fence for animals” and later “assembly within the limits of the square.”[ Apella (Ἀπέλλα) is the name of the popular assembly in Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia (ἐκκλησία). R. S. P. Beekes rejected the connection of the theonym with the noun apellai and suggested a Pre-Greek proto-form *Apalyun.Several instances of popular etymology are attested from ancient authors. Thus, the Greeks most often associated Apollo’s name with the Greek verb ἀπόλλυμι (apollymi), “to destroy”. Plato in Cratylus connects the name withἀπόλυσις (apolysis), “redeem”, with ἀπόλουσις (apolousis), “purification”, and with ἁπλοῦν ([h]aploun), “simple”, in particular in reference to the Thessalian form of the name, Ἄπλουν, and finally with Ἀειβάλλων (aeiballon), “ever-shooting”. Hesychius connects the name Apollo with the Doric ἀπέλλα (apella), which means “assembly”, so that Apollo would be the god of political life, and he also gives the explanation σηκός (sekos), “fold”, in which case Apollo would be the god of flocks and herds. In the Ancient Macedonian language πέλλα (pella) means “stone,” and some toponyms may be derived from this word: Πέλλα (Pella, the capital of Ancient Macedonia) and Πελλήνη(Pellēnē/Pallene)
Back in 1993, in a Neolithic lakeshore settlement that occupied an artificial island near the modern village of Dispilio on Lake Kastoria in the Kastoria Prefecture, professor George Hourmouziadis and his team unearthed the Dispilio Tablet (also known as the Dispilio Scripture or the Dispilio Disk), a wooden tablet bearing inscribed markings (charagmata) that has been carbon 14-dated to about 7300 BP (5260 BC).
In February 2004, during the announcement of the Tablet’s discovery to the world, Hourmouziadis claimed that the text with the markings could not be easily publicized because it would ultimately change the current historical background concerning the origins of writing and articulate speech depicted with letters instead of ideograms within the borders of the ancient Greek world and by extension, the broader European one.
According to the Professor of Prehistoric Archaeology at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, the markings suggested that the current theory proposing that the ancient Greeks received their alphabet from the ancient civilizations of the Middle East (Babylonians, Sumerians and Phoenicians etc) fails to close the historic gap of some 4,000 years. This gap translates into the following facts: while ancient eastern civilizations would use ideograms to express themselves, the ancient Greeks were using syllables in a similar manner like we use today.
The currently accepted historic theory taught around the world suggests that the ancient Greeks learned to write around 800 BC from the Phoenicians. However, a question emerges among scholars: how is it possible for the Greek language to have 800,000 word entries, ranking first among all known languages in the world, while the second next has only 250,000 word entries? How is it possible for the Homeric Poems to have been produced at about 800 BC, which is just when the ancient Greeks learned to write? It would be impossible for the ancient Greeks to write these poetic works without having had a history of writing of at least 10,000 years back, according to a US linguistic research.
The tablet is 2,000 years older than the written findings from the Sumerian era and 4,000 years older than the Cretan-Mycenean linear types of writing.
The markings on the tablet did not resemble the human figures, the sun and moon or other figures ideograms usually depict. They actually showed signs of advanced apheresis, which indicates they are the result of cognitive processes.
The tablet was partially damaged when it was exposed to the oxygen-rich environment outside of the mud and water in which it was immersed for a long period of time, and it is now under conservation. The full academic publication of the tablet apparently awaits the completion of the work of conservation
– See more at: http://greece.greekreporter.com/2012/07/16/7270-year-old-tablet-found-in-kastoria-calls-into-question-history-of-writing/#sthash.o0yDtSd4.dpuf
Main article: Ancient Macedonian language
ALEXANDER THE GREAT – ”Medallion” East of the Empire, Beroia (provincial capital of Macedonia, the Heart of Greece), 3rd century A.D., Gold, Diam. 54 mm; 96.3 g
Museu Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisboa
The obverse shows the diademed head of Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC). This posthumous and idealized portrait includes symbols of Alexander’s deification, one of which is the ram’s horn, characteristic of the Egyptian god Amon. This iconography derives from the type of coin introduced by one of Alexander’s immediate successors, King Lysimachos of Thrace (297-281 BC).
The reverse shows a hunting scene, with the hunter’s spear piercing a wild boar that is being attacked by two dogs. The legend “King Alexander”, which appears to the left and above, identifies the hunter.
The “medallion” is part of a treasure including twenty similar pieces found in Aboukir, Egypt, in 1902. The designation “medallion” is purely a matter of convention based on the piece’s morphology and size, as the use given to such pieces cannot be definitively established.